|| Capacity Building: Japan
Compliance with regulations developed by the legislation such
as the Water Pollution Control Law requires measurement of the
quality of effluents. In Japan, continuous monitoring of public
water and groundwater is the responsibility of governors, and
the measurements are made by the national and local governments.
However, Article 14 of the Water Pollution Control Law requires
that Private sector entrepreneurs measure and record the quality
of effluents from their factories and business establishments.
This has led to certification of pollution control managers.
In addition, factories take environmentally certified public measurers
to assure proper accuracy and precision of the measurements.
of Pollution Control Organizations
The “Law Concerning the Improvement
of Pollution Prevention Systems in Specific Factories”,
enacted in 1971, requires that factories form in-factory
pollution control organizations for the prevention and
control of pollutant emissions.
Specific factories, such as manufacturing industries
and electric power plants, are among the facilities
regulated under pollution control laws including
the Water Pollution Control Law and the Air Pollution
Control Law. These factories are required to establish
an infrastructure that takes responsibility for the
pollution control. The basic organization of the
infrastructure for pollution control consists of
the “supervisor for pollution control”,
the “pollution control manager“ and the “chief
pollution control manager.”
Analysts for Environment
The “Measurement Law” provides
the standards for measurement and ensures that they are
conducted properly. Certification of water quality measurement
and the accuracy of measured values require management
of specific measurement devices and criteria including
equipment maintenance, maintenance of measurement accuracy,
improvement of measurement methods, and the practice
of appropriate measurements. The Measurement Law requires
registration not only for the measurement certification,
but also the job descriptions as certified analysts for
The public measure system qualifies and registers
those who have passed the national examination as
the certified analysts for environment. Only registered
analysts can obtain jobs in measurement management.
As noise vibration and the concentration of hazardous
substances had become increasingly important in 1974, “Certified
analysts for environment” were introduced.
Later, because of the broad environmental fields,
certified analysts for environment were divided to
two categories: one for chemical parameters, and
one for the physical parameters such as noise and
vibration. At present there are 3 categories including,
1) “certified analysts for environment (chemical
analysis),” 2) “certified analysts for
environment (noise and vibration)” and 3) “general
certified analysts for environment (general).
Engineer and Assistant Consulting Engineer
“Consulting Engineer” is
the title that is given to the person who passed the
national examination based on the Consulting Engineers
Law. It is a qualification authorizing system of the
technical expert to attempt a sound development of the
technological consultant. “Consulting Engineer” is
the most authoritative qualification for technical experts
who are engaged in the specific aspects of the science
and technology. This title will be help in selecting
consultant company, for instance, when a corporation,
or a municipal government or a national government needs
assistance from a technological consultant.
“Assistant Consulting Engineer” is
the title which is given to the person who passed
the national examination based on the Consulting
Engineers Law, and is to assist Consulting Engineer
to acquire skills that are necessary to become a
There is “Environmental sector” on
this qualification system, as the technological category
related to the environmental problem.
In the investigation in 1990, about 15% out of
the whole Consulting Engineers are independent as
consulting engineer, about 42% work at consulting
companies and mainly engages in the public projects,
and about 44% work at construction or manufacturing
corporations as senior technological staff.
Reference: Okada M, Peterson SA.(2000): “Water Pollution Control Policy and Management: the Japanese Experience”. Gyosei, Japan, 287pp.