Cases at a local level : Philippines
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Cases Philippines


Case Overview

Manila Bay — Environmental Management Project

A project called the Manila Bay Environmental Management Project is being implemented by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) under the Regional Programme on “Building Partnerships in Environmental Management of the Seas of East Asia”. Selected as a “pollution hotspot” the Programme aims to employ the Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) and Environmental Risk Assessment and Management approaches to address sociological and environmental concerns to its protection and management.

Two (2) ICM sites were established within the Bay in the provinces of Bataan and Cavite. A management structure in the Project including the ICM sites allows the active partnership among the national government agencies, local government units (LGUs), the civil society, NGOs and POs in addressing the various issues, among  which are the results of the Refined Risk Assessment of Manila Bay which discloses the actual situation of the Bay and its ecosystem.

A physico-chemical examination of the Bay show that it is contaminated with coliforms, heavy metals, pesticides, notwithstanding the floating debris of plastics and other solid wastes. All these contaminants reached levels that are a concern for public health and integrity of resources that make up the Bay’s ecology. Alarming level of BOD had manifested in fish kill cases in almost every two (2 years). The study has come up with sets of recommendations which basically entail shared responsibility of all the agencies and sectors concerned in addressing to sustain the benefits from the Bay’s various uses.

Related Presentation:Manila Bay Environmental Management Project

Implementation of the Integrated Coastal Management System in Batangas Bay

Over the years, Batangas Bay Region (BBR) has experienced economic and industrial growth due to the aggressive implementation of the CALABARZON (Provinces of Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon) Master plan that aims to cascade development in the surrounding area of the National Capital Region (NCR), as well as decongest the highly urbanized National Capital Region (NCR).  Under the Calabarzon Master Plan, Batangas, specially the BBR, is envisioned to become one of the centers for industrial growth and expansion as well as a major shipping hub.  It was for this reason that Integrated coastal Management (ICM) framework, a holistic planning coordinating and management mechanism has been implemented in the province of Batangas.

Detailed Description of ICM Batangas

In 1994, the Global Environment Facility (GEF)/United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/International Maritime Organization (IMO) Regional Programme for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pollution in the East Asian Seas (MPP-EAS) selected Batangas Bay as a pilot ICM demonstration site.  The signing of the Memorandum of Understanding ((MOU) for the implementation of ICM in the Province of Batangas as a demonstration site in the East Asian Seas region on 28 April 1994 marked the beginning of the Joint efforts through ICM in Batangas Bay

With the Philippine Local Government Code, Batangas Provincial Government – Environment and Natural Resources Office (PG-ENRO) was eventually established through local legislation Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP) Resolution No. 136, Series of 1995 and SP Resolution No. 292.

Appropriate Ordinance No. AO -003, Series of 1995.PG-ENRO took on the developed functions from the DENR to include the hosting of PMO for the implementation of ICM in Batangas Bay and the implementing agency of the Batangas Bay Demonstration Project (BBDP) by facilitating and coordinating its various activities and studies.

Further, to address the concerns of the various sectors in the BBR, the Batangas Bay Region Environmental Protection Council or BBR-EPC evolved from the PCC, created by the Provincial Government through SP Resolution No. 276, Series of 1996.  The Council serves as a forum where stakeholders can meet regularly, and discuss and decide on various issues related to activites affecting Batangas Bay.  The Council consists of the Governor of the Province of Batangas, who sits in as chair, the mayors of the coastal municipalities, representatives from government agencies, the private sector and civil society.

BBR-EPC coordinates the stakeholders, initiates legislation, adopts environmental management plans, promotes public awareness, and monitors compliance with national and local laws.  It has become a “legitimized multi-sectoral partnership” with the PG-ENRO address the varying and overlapping interest- and sector-led efforts and conflicts in management, coordinate responses, and responsibilities among the various stakeholders in Batangas Bay and facilitate the integration of existing and planned actions from conceptualization to implementation of environmental policies and programs.

Within the context of the strong local government commitment and political leadership and support, active private sector and multi-stakeholder participation – complemented with both financial and manpower mobilization – the program activities have been successfully implemented and sustained through the various mechanisms put into place and honed over the years.

A suitable policy and planning environment was created for the implementation of major environmental interventions.

  1. Multi-disciplinary team of experts developed a Coastal Environmental Profile, which is a comprehensive technical document describing and assessing the bay region within the ICM framework.
  2. Strategic environmental Management Plan (SEMP) was formulated for the BBR by the multi-sectoral Strategic Planning Committee to serve as the blueprint in prescribing the manner by which development and ICM endeavors should proceed without compromising the environment.

An Integrated Waste Management Action Plan (IWMAP) was also developed in collaboration with the BCRMF and through intensive consultation with stakeholders.  The IWMAP was implemented in four phases that included preparation, mobilization, implementation and development.  Implementation activities include waste identification and characterization, signing and enforcing voluntary agreements, and waste minimization through pollution management appraisals.  Long-term options emphasized the construction of appropriate waste management facilities.

Source:  Tropical Coasts Vol.2 No. 1, July 2004

Candaba, Pampanga Conservation Effort

The Candaba Swamp is located 60 kilometers North of Metro Manila. It encompasses about 32,000 hectares of wetland mostly in the town of Candaba bordered by Baliuag, San Ildefonso and San Miguel in Bulacan, San Luis and Arayat in Pampanga, and Cabiao in Nueva Ecija.

The wetland is a complex of freshwater ponds, swamps and marshes with surrounding areas of seasonally flooded grassland, arable land and palm savanna on a vast alluvial flood plain. The entire area is usually flooded in the wet season, but most of it dries out during the dry season (late November to April) and is converted into rice fields and plantations of water melons.

The Candaba Wetland has been declared a bird sanctuary by the municipal government under Mayor Jerry L. Pelayo by virtue of Municipal Council Resolution No. 51, series of 2003. With the support of the national government, private sector and non-government organizations, measures are being undertaken to rehabilitate and conserve the swamp and its diverse wildlife. Hunting has been banned and land use is being strictly regulated.

The Candaba Marsh is an important staging and wintering area for migratory birds, from October up to April of every eyar when the swamp regularly supports thousands of birds. 20 years ago, as high as 100,000 ducks of various species were recorded in the area. At present, there are more than 80 species of birds and ducks that are thriving at the swamp, almost half of these are migratory.

The swamp is a significant part of the East Asia-Australiasian Migratory flyway. Migratory birds spend winter in the Philippines or pass through the islands on their way to point south, and north on their return to their native habitats. Traditionally, therse migratory birds come from China, Japan, Siberia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, south Korea and Singapore.

The reed-beds at Candaba and in the surrounding areas are one of the few known wintering areas of the Streaked reed-Warbler Acrocephalus Sorghophilus, a very local species which breeds in northeastern China.

Other Conservation Efforts in Candaba

  • Campaigned against waste dumping in rivers, creeks and irrigation canals.
  • Renewed call for the rehabilitation of Pampanga River including its protective dikes.
  • Initiated the desilting and rehabilitation of creeks and tributaries.
  • Brought into national attention the issues of water pollution, degradation of Pampanga River, illegal logging, Ms. Earth, Migratory Birds, Asian Waterbird Census, International & National wetlands Day, and Cruelty to animals.

Source:Municipality of Candaba

Calamba Laguna Solid Waste Management Program

Public and Private Sectors Convergence for Solid Waste Co-governance in Urban Poor Communities in Calamba City

Calamba City is part of the fast urbanizing region south of Metro Manila.  In 1995, a report indicated that the city collector 77% of the total solid waste generated.  However with the in flux of population in the city and rapid growth of industries in the areas, it is anticipated that solid waste has grown dramatically.

Republic Act 9003, the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 and the Local Government Code (Republic Act 7160 of 1991) developed responsibility of solid waste management to the municipality and city government.  In Calamba City, however, the city had to pool resources to comply with the said provision.  The city could not individually provide a solid waste management infrastructure that need social and environmentally sustainable standard.

Calamba being a part of the Laguna de Bay region, a major water resource that supplies a large portion of Metro Manila with fishcatch need to conserve and protect the quality of the bay.

It is for this reason, the city accede Public and Private Sectors Convergence for Solid Waste Co-governance in 2002, a DENR-UNDP Project.

Detailed Description of the Project

The PPPUE-SWM Project came into being in August 2002.  It was a response of the DENR to facilitate the implementation of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, otherwise known as RA 9003 by assisting local government units, particularly the less economically endowed barangays, in setting up the mandated Materials Recovery Facility (MRF).

Project Objective

To establish the first ever, fully functional cluster barangays Material Recovery Facility (MRF) in the country.

  • To improve the design and operational model for establishing public and private sectors partnership to management waste.
  • Three contiguous economically-challenged barangays in Calamba City, namely: Barangay Palingon, Lingga and Sampiruhan were chosen as the project site due to severe solid waste management problem and their proximity along the stretch of Laguna de Bay.  The countries largest lake and freshwater source.

Project Partners

Local Partners

  • Barangays Paligon, Ligga and Sampiruhan
  • City Government of Calamba
  • Office of the Congressional Representatives of the 2nd District of Laguna
  • Pugad Lawin-Calamba (Business Partner)
  • Kaunlaran sa Pamayanan Foundation, Inc. (local non-government organization)

National Partner

  • DENR-National Solid Waste Management Commission

The Project Outputs

  • A local organization call Project Task Force was created to serve as the project operational and coordination hub at the ground.  It is composed only of representatives of local partners.
  • The socio-economic Feasibility Study of a cluster-barangays MRF system
  • Cited by the UNDP and PPPUE as the best PPPUE Project being implemented
  • To date, PPPUE is implementing similar initiatives in Malaysia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam
  • Completed a model on cluster-barangays solid waste management scheme.

Project Update

The first phase of the Project and in March 2004 with the following accomplishment

  • Construction of the first –ever fully functional cluster-barangay MRF with PPP in the country.

Two MRF are being constructed designed to serve as the Training Center while the other is designed to serve as the principal MRF of the tree barangays

  • Establishment of a public-private partnership model on solid waste management
  • Development of Guidelines to Replicate the Project Gain
    • A procedural guideline titled “How to set up a cluster-barangay MRF?” which briefly discusses the major steps on how two or more barangays can cooperate to set up a cluster-type MRF and establish partnership with their private sector counterpart was developed.
    • Publication of The Socio-economic Feasibility Study of a Cluster-Barangay MRF in Barangays Palingon, Lingga and Sampiruhan, Calamba City, Province of Laguna, Philippines.

The second phase of the Project was approved under the Flexible Response Mechanism of the PPPUE.  It started in April 2004 and ended in September 2004.  The accomplishments are as follows:

  • Production of a Photo Exhibit of the Project Highlights and of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 or RA 9003.
  • Reproduction of 700 copies of the feasibility study and 4,950 leaflets of the guide on setting-up a cluster-barangay MRF.
  • Conduct of three barangay conferences in strategic locations in the country to facilitate the replication of the PPPUE-SWM Project experience
    • Luzon:  Baguio City, 28 July 2004
    • Visayas:   Cebu City, 21 July 2004
    • Mindanao:  Cagayan de Oro City, 15 July 2004
  • Conduct of livelihood training on how to make bags out of douypacks and accessories out of old magazines in PaLiSam as a scheme to sustain stakeholders’ participation.

Mr. Mario Marcial
City Environment and Natural Resources Office
Calamba, Laguna

Source: DENR-UNDP Project PPPUE-SWM Project Phi/02/G58 at EMB-NSWMC Secretariat

Bigay Galing sa Kalikasan ng Bataan (BIGKIS-Bataan) ICM Program, Bataan Province

In February 10, 2000 a tri-partite agreement was signed between the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) of the Provincial Government and Petron Foundation, and Partnership for Environmental Management for the Sea of East Asia (PEMSEA) for the implementation of a program in Bataan that would involve the sustainable management of the province’s natural resources and development.  The program has been the PEMSEA’s first integrated coastal management (ICM) parallel site.  As a parallel site, Bataan would implement an ICM project using its local resources through the partnership that combines the strengths and assets of the local government and the private sector, as well as the participation of the civil society.  The project came to be known as the Bigay Galing sa Kalikasan ng Bataan (BIGKIS-Bataan) ICM Program.

Rising to the Challenge

The provincial government of Bataan in the pursuit of its mandate in taking care of the province including the natural endowments of its land and water and its citizen is working in a transparent and valued added partnership between the public and private sectors in developing proactive long-term programs for the conservation and sustainable development of coastal and marine resources.

For the Provincial Government, BIGKIS-Bataan is an opportunity to tread new waters and, at the same time, a challenge to adopt new ways of going about the business of governance.  For achieving sustainable development, a Project Management Office (PMO) was established that would take care of the day-to-day implementation of BIGKIS-Bataan, with the staff and the resources/utilities. Since the PMO is under the Office of the Governor, it has the benefit of having direct access to the provincial leaders.

At the same time, the leaders of the province’s business sector, as community members and stakeholders themselves, realized the need to go beyond individual and piecemeal social initiatives and instead have a more significant and lasting contribution to the social and environmental needs of the province.

BIGKIS-Bataan provided the ideal vehicle to achieve this goal, but at the same time presented the private sector with a host of challenges, including long-term investment, resources mobilization, program sustenance and public acceptance.  It was in this context that Petron Corporation, through Petron Foundation, recognized the need to forge partnerships within their ranks and which has led them to encourage other business organizations based in or doing business in Bataan to share in environmental stewardship.

The result was 18 corporations and socio-civic organizations forming the Bataan Coastal Care Foundation (BCCF) with the primary aim of supporting the development and implementation of the ICM program as Bataan’s key environmental management framework.  Since its incorporation in 2000, BCCF has paralleled the efforts of the Bataan Provincial Government in sustaining the ICM program.  It has also become the primary partner of the Bataan Provincial Government in developing a culture of transparency and trust in coastal governance in the province.  Equally important, BCCF has propped the institutionalization of ICM in the development agenda of key stakeholder groups in Bataan.  The significant contributions by the private sector include mobilization of resources, business management skills, technical expertise, research materials and other relevant data equipment and facilities and manpower - to complement those provided by the Provincial Government.

Further sealing the partnership, the BIGKIS-Bataan Project Coordinating Committee (PCC) was established to provide guidance to the PMO in the implementation of the ICM program.  This multi-stakeholder body serves as the advisory and policy/decision-making arm of BIGKIS-Bataan, and has been instrumental in the leaps and bounds that the program has taken during the last four years.

Source: Tropical Coast Vo. 11 No.2  December 2004/GEF/UNDP/IMO-PEMSEA

Formulation and Implementation of Bataan Coastal Strategy (BCS)

In 2001, with initial assistance form PEMSEA, the public sector (composed of the provincial Government and the local government units) of the city and municipalities of the province and the private sector (represented by BCCF) together helped in the process of formulating the Bataan Coastal Strategy (BCS) through multi-stakeholder consultations.  In the process, these consultations generated stakeholder ownership and the corresponding commitment, which is reflected in the Bataan Declaration.

Eventually, the BCS was adopted by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (Provincial Board) as Bataan’s primary framework for sustainable coastal development and democratic environmental governance through BIGKIS-Bataan.  In 2002, to reiterate their support to the national leadership, a Manifesto of Support to the Bataan Declaration was signed and presented to President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

The BCS is deemed to serve as a comprehensive environmental management framework that would provide directions in achieving targeted outcomes – as identified by the stakeholders themselves – and formulating a series of specific action plans and programs.  It is achieving the shared vision is the development of partnerships among the stakeholders and the synergy of efforts of the many different players with different skills and perspectives so that all efforts – be it individually, by community or by sector, as long as it is within the framework – contribute to the overall pursuit of sustainable development.

Sustaining the Strategic Partnership

During the process of implementing BIGKIS-Bataan, the partner have manifested their commitment as advocates of sustainable development in the province, through:

  • Leadership and the establishment of BIGKIS-Bataan PCC;
  • Conduct of and participation in consultation workshops leading to institutional and policy reforms in the municipal, provincial, regional and national levels;
  • Sponsorships of community-based rehabilitation projects, supplemental livelihood support to coastal communities, consensus building on environmental issues and information, education and communication (IEC) campaigns; and
  • Institutionalization of the Bataan Coastal and Marine Resources Management Office (BCMRMO).

Reaping the Rewards

Overall, the projects initiated through BIGKIS-Bataan as identified in the BCS have given benefits in the form of a healthy working relationship among the local government, private sector, civil society groups and international agencies.

As of 2003, on-the ground activities as a direct result by the BCS, have been able to accomplish the following:

  • 133.3 km of the 177-km coastline (75 percent) covering 11 municipalities and a city have  been cleaned;
  • Approximately 269 metric tons of garbage were collected during the KKD from 2002 to the first half of 2003;
  • 3,035 trees have been panted through the joint efforts of BIGKIS-Bataan and the DENR-Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO) Bataan;
  • 133,600 mangrove propagules were planted in a 12.5-hectare area covering five coastal barangays (villages);
  • 68,780 volunteers for mangrove enrichment planting and 210 volunteers for tree planting for a total of 70,948 volunteers mobilized from various stakeholder groups; and
  • Two projects that directly address poverty alleviation among fisherfolk communities – Mussel Culture Livelihood Project and fish consignment and fuel-buying center as support for Marine Turtle Conservation – were implemented.  Nine fisherfolk organizations and an NGO were among the first batch of recipients of these supplemental livelihood programs.

Another benefit is the symbiotic relationship developed among the partners and the gaining of new knowledge through the sharing of experiences and best practices.

Still another, and perhaps the most important, benefit of the partnership is in being able to enjoy the trust of all concerned – the local governments, the private sector, civil society groups, the stakeholders.  This has allowed the partners to have better access to first-hand information on the actual concerns of everyone, resulting in more focused and relevant support.

Among the new initiatives of the partnership is the granting of financial assistance to a number of Pos to start alternative/supplemental livelihood programs.  Other proposals to promote entrepreneurial skills and community-based livelihood programs are also being looked into.  As such, coastal communities in Bataan regard both the local government and the private sector in a positive light, accepting BIGKIS-Bataan as a venue to raise issues on environmental concerns and as a force that could provide solutions to such concerns.  Coastal communities are also more aware of their roles and responsibilities on the values of concerning coastal and marine resources for their own benefit.

Source: Tropical Coast Vo. 11 No.2  December 2004/GEF/UNDP/IMO-PEMSEA