Background : Nepal
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Background : Nepal


Underlying causes of the water environment problems Phenomena (water environment problems) Policy responses to water environment problems
Water resources infrastructure development such as hydroelectric project, irrigation projects and water supply projects etc. Ecological disturbances in de-water stretch of river Water Resources Act 1992, Electricity Act 1992, Environment Protection Act 1996, Forest Act 1993, Water Resources Regulation 1993, Environment Protection Regulation 1997, Irrigation Regulation 2000, Water Resources Strategy 2002, Hydropower Development Policy 2001, National Water Plan 2005, Solid Waste Center Act 1987, Nepal Water Supply Corporation Act 1989, Industrial Enterprises Act 1992, Solid Waste Center Regulation 1989, Environment Protection Regulation 1997, Nepal Agricultural Research Council Act 1992, The Pesticide Regulation, 1994 , Climate Change Adaptation: Strategic Vision in Agriculture, 2011etc.
Water Table fluctuation due to water diversion
Change in properties of water quality in Tail water of  Hydro projects
Possibility of contamination during construction phase of the infrastructures
Migration along with rapid urbanization at the same time development of industrial areas.  Water contamination due to natural and man-made waste disposal leachate
Seasonal degradation of natural water quality
Solid waste management
Improper use of agricultural inputs and lack of modern agriculture practice Water contamination due to agricultural inputs
Overdraft and poor recharge of groundwater
Insufficient supply of clean energy and heavy dependence on traditional fuel-wood. Increasing population Forest depletion
Improper agricultural practice in the hills and mountains. More intense and potentially erratic monsoon rainfall due to climate change   Soil degradation
Indoor air pollution due to use of fuel-wood. Outdoor air pollution due to increase in the vehicular movement and forest fire. Air pollution

Environmental degradation and global warming has becoming widespread concerns and Nepal is no exception. Elsewhere the climate change has becoming buzz word and its impact on sectoral issues mainly in agriculture, forest and water resources. Due to the rapid growth of population and consequent effect on over-exploitation of the depleting resources, ecological degradation is taking place everywhere in Nepal. The country has one of the highest densities of population (180 per sq. km) among the mountainous countries. The subsistence farming economy is affected due to changes in the reliability of stream flow, a more intense and potentially erratic monsoon rainfall, and the impacts of flooding adversely affect the winter and spring crops and ultimately it has threatened to the food security of the people.

Realizing the importance of the fact, Nepal has started to incorporate policies and programs on environment management in the periodic plans. However, priorities varied and immediate needs are reflected in the plans. In early seventies, priorities were given to address soil erosion, flood and landslides and conserve forest resources in the policies, strategies and programs of the periodic plans. In early eighties, emphasis was given on the policy of reducing water pollution generated by industries and urban areas. Remarkable achievements were gained in community forestry but problems began to emerge in urban areas and industrial estates particularly of pollution of solid waste, air, water and noise. On the other hand, rural areas continue to suffer from soil erosion, flood, land-slides and reduction in the sources of water. To overcome with these issues government formulated policies and enacted Acts and Regulations such as Environment Protection Act, 1996 and Environment Protection Rules, 1997 etc. Recently promulgated Constitution of Nepal (2015) has also emphasized on the right to live in a healthy and clean environment.