Legislative framework :: Cambodia
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Legislative framework : Cambodia
Current policies and laws on water environment

• The Royal Government of Cambodia has adopted the Sub-decree on Solid Waste Management at Urban Areas. The Sub-decree aims at strengthening responsible institutions in managing solid wastes and garbage at urban areas (at sub-national level) through implementing the decentralization process including promoting the participatory approach.
The Sub-decree addressed about the delegation of responsibility in relation to solid wastes/garbage management from the national responsibility to sub-national and local responsibility to meet its effective management.

• The National Policy on Green Growth (NPGG) has approved by the Royal Government of Cambodia in March 2013. Its vision aims to balance between the sustainable development of economy, environment, society, culture and sustainable use of natural resources through integration, matching and adaption, as well as harmonization between a green growth principle and national policy. The common objectives of NPGG aim to achieve the 07 key accesses addressing in the NGGRM, as well as to develop the economy in balance with environment, society and culture, and to create a favorably enabling environment for green growth in equity, balance, fraternity and quality of socio-economic systems and ecology that uphold national culture value.

NPGG has 05 key strategies including such as: (i) Cooperation and facilitation among national and international institutions; (ii) Study, research and data analysis; (iii) Harmonizing the green growth in the economy, society and culture; (iv) Human resources development; and (v) Sustainable green technology development

• National Green Growth Strategic Plan 2013-2030 has approved in March 2013. It has the specific objectives aim to achieve the green development in order to ensure the stable policy and macro economy to become a developed country.
The National Green Growth Strategic Plan has 09 sectoral strategies as follows:

(1) Green investment and green job creation – It focuses on investing both budget and technology for the development with lower environmental and social impact including a low carbon emission, as well as promoting the green jobs, for example, green agriculture, green industry, green business, green tourism, green transport, green energy, green finance, and the like.
Specific implementing activities include such as: (i) encouraging investors who considered and designed the green growth development, and creating jobs based on green technology; (ii) investment on the efficient use of natural resources; and (iii) effective management of public and private finance.

(2) Green economic management in balance with the environment – It focuses on the development of economy and environmental sustainability, green jobs, and in addition to green tax, green finance, which are the crucial tools to alleviate people poverty and/or to achieve the sustainable development targets.
Several key activities include such as: (i) managing the green tax; (ii) managing the green finance policy; (iii) managing the service for environmental protection system; and (iv) managing incomes and expenditures effectively.

(3) Sustainable blue economic development – It focuses on the sustainable development along Cambodian coastal areas, e.g. marine navigation and port, eco-tourist zone, research and exploitation of oil and gases, fisheries, and other developments without cause to marine environment pollution.
Several key activities include such as: (i) managing and developing blue economy; (ii) observing and monitoring marine pollution; (iii) ensuring food security at coastal areas; (iv) mitigating GHGs emission, and adapting to climate change.

(4) Green environment and natural resources management – It focuses on the sustainable development without causing water, soil and air pollution, as well as sustainable managing forestry, fisheries, water resources, of which all are main factors to boost green economy in balance with social and cultural sustainability.
This sectoral strategy has set the key activities such as: (i) green agriculture, food safety and food security, and sanitation; (ii) sustainable management of water resources; (iii) effective management of energy and renewable energy; (iv) sustainable management and land use; (v) sustainable fishery conservation and management; (vi) developing infrastructure and green transport; (vii) green tourist development; and (viii) environmental quality promotion.

(5) Human resource building and green education – It aims to build and improve human resources in various sector, e.g. public and private sector, and civil society towards the green growth in consistent with the high acceleration of economic development.
This sectoral strategy has set key activities including such as: (i) boosting educational curriculum on green growth; (ii) boosting capacity building on green growth outside the educational curriculum; (iii) Exchanging knowledge, experiences and technology toward green growth; and (iv) dissemination and education via the information system.

(6) Effective green technology management – It focuses on creating education programme in relevant institutions by input green technology based on market demand and the government policy.
This sectoral strategy comprises key activities such as: (i) green technology installation; (ii) capacity building on green technology; and (iii) green technology investment.

(7) Boosting safety systems for green society – It focuses on green economic development, which dealt with low carbon emission.
This sectoral strategy comprises key activities such as: (i) green social-cultural safety; and (ii) social protection.

(8) Maintaining and protecting green cultural heritages and the national symbol – It aims to promote national cultural heritage temples to become the green tourist target pertaining with the Strategic Plan on Tourist Development 2012-2020 which maintain the national cultural symbol.
Key activities of the sectoral strategy include such as: (i) green cultural maintenance and protection; (ii) green cultural heritage conservation; and (iii) green unseen-cultural heritage promotion.

(9) Green growth governance – It focuses on governance, management, leadership to both institution and someone, in order to achieve the targets of: green investment and green jobs, green economic management in balance with the environment, sustainable blue development, green environment and natural resources management, human resource building and green education, effective green technology management, boosting safety systems for green society and maintaining and protecting green cultural heritages and national symbol.

The sectoral strategy comprises 06 key activities, these include such as: (i) boosting the cooperation on governance between green national and international institutions; (ii) preparing legislation and policy framework; (iii) human resource building; (iv) financial mobilization and development funds; (v) promoting transparency, finance and responsibility.