Legislative framework :: Nepal
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Legislative framework : Nepal

Planned development in Nepal started after implementation of the First Five Year National Plan in 1956. So far, 10 National Plans and one additional Three Years Interim Plan (2007-2010) have been implemented. Until the Fifth Plan (1975-1980), no specific environmental policies existed rather they were directly or indirectly addressed by other sectors such as irrigation, drinking water and sanitation etc. The environment and land use policy was later incorporated, for the first time, as a national policy in the Sixth Plan (1980-85), to formally identify the need to prevent environmental degradation. Environment was also recognized in the Seventh Plan (1985-1990) as an important aspect to be integrated into every development project, but not strongly implemented. However, the Eighth Plan (1992-1997) has specifically formulated policies related to environment and resource preservation (chapter Environment and Resource Conservation), with adequate attention to the problems existing in the nation's development and environment, and also to the concepts of the Earth Summit Conference. It also mentions about the investigation and analysis to prepare indicators, scales and action-oriented guidelines for existing condition of natural environment, and air, water, noise and land-related pollution. Causes for air, water, noise and land-related pollution will be investigated through on-the-spot observation and mitigating management plans will be formulated to control pollution. Similarly, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of developmental activities, Identifying and Preserving Sensitive Areas, Conservation Programmes for Natural and Cultural Resources, Promoting People's Awareness, Pollution Control Program –including water (assessment of state of pollution, indices preparation, use of pollution control technology, and management plans)– are other priority areas identified in the plan. Environment Protection Act, 1997 and Environment Protection Regulations, 1998 are the two milestones of the Eighth Plan, in which EIA has been legally enforced. After the Eighth Plan environment has remained one of the priority areas of the national plans and policies. During different planning phases number of Acts and Legislations has been formulated. Below table highlights the important Acts and Polices related to water environment: