Last Updated : 07 February 2023.

ネパールは豊富な水資源を有する国で、年間平均降水量は約1,500 mmです。しかし、ネパール中央部のアンナプルナ山脈の南側山麓沿いでは6,000 mmを超える一方、中央北部のチベット高原付近では250 mm未満であり、地域によって降水量に幅があります。ネパールの総降水量の約10%が雪として降り、そのほとんどはネパールの総面積の23%を占める標高5,000 m以上の万年雪の地域に降ります。また、ネパールには、国土面積の3.6%にあたる5,323平方キロメートルを占める3,252の氷河があり、その推定氷床量は481立方キロメートルです。また、総面積75平方キロメートルの2,323の氷河湖もあります。雪に覆われたヒマラヤ山脈は、特に乾季には河川の主な源流となっています。

Legal framework

  • Environmental Protection Act (Outside source)
    The aim of the act is to protect the fundamental right of each citizen to live in a clean and healthy environment, provide the victim with compensation by the polluter for any damage resulting from environmental pollution or degradation, maintain a proper balance between environment and development, mitigate adverse environmental impacts on environment and biodiversity and face the challenges posed by climate change.
  • Forest Act
    This Act governs all forest and related resources focusing on forest management, while contributing to the conservation of wildlife, environment, and water resources.
  • Water Supply and Sanitation Act (In the Parliament and will be endorsed later)
    This Act governs all water supply and sanitation protection of the country.
  • Water Resources Act
    This act aims to make timely legal arrangements for determining beneficial uses of water resources, preventing environmental and other hazardous effects thereof and also for keeping water resources free from pollution.
  • Water Resources Rules

Institutional Arrangement of water

Water quality standards

There are separate standards and guidelines for different uses (drinking water, irrigation, aquaculture, livestock, and recreation) in addition to Nepal Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Ecosystem

Technical standards and related information

Water management practices